Alpha 2 Macroglobulin (A2M)

Fibronectin–Aggrecan Complex (FAC) is a unique molecular complex that is harvested and used as a biomarker in areas of the body. Researchers have recently discovered that FAC is a product of cartilage breakdown but even more prominently, that it is synonymous with pain following a joint injury. The presence of Fibronectin-Aggrecan Complex in high numbers is found in joints affected by osteoarthritis. FAC is very singular because it is the only serum biomarker that can be quantified proportionally to the severity of joint injury and used as a predictor of joint pain. Now that this is identified and established, the question is: How do we reduce FAC, decrease joint pain, and reduce joint inflammation? The answer is Alpha 2 Macroglobulin (A2M)

Alpha 2 Macroglobulin is a naturally occurring plasma protein in blood, produced by the liver. A2M is harvested from your own (autologous) blood products and concentrated using a centrifuge. Pure A2M is one of the most potent inhibitors of proteases in existence. A protease is an enzyme in the body that breaks down different bodily proteins. Alpha 2 Macroglobulin’s mechanism of action is to constrain a total of three classes of proteases that degrade chondrocytes (cells that compose the matrix of cartilage in the body). These proteases include the cytokines Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-A) and Interleukin 1 (IL-1), matrix metalloproteases, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS). Alpha 2 Macroglobulin is the only molecule that has the capability of inhibiting all three.

With respect to Fibronectin-Aggrecan Complex as mentioned above, the administration of A2M has been proven to decrease the levels of this serum biomarker. Each of the mentioned components have a very close and dependent relationship. The entire process works as a cascade, sort of like an avalanche effect. If you recall, by inhibiting these three degradative proteases using A2M, you in turn prevent joint cartilage damage, therefore reducing the levels of FAC, and your end result is joint preservation and pain reduction.

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